The Role of Drones in Last Mile Delivery: Opportunities and Limitations

Last Updated: 

September 16, 2023

"Last mile delivery" refers to the final stage of the supply chain operation where goods are transported to their ultimate destination. This last leg typically spans the shortest distance of all the prior transportation stages but is often the most challenging stage in the supply chain process to execute effectively. In recent years, drones have emerged as the promising technology to revolutionise last-mile delivery services offering speed and cost savings, among countless other opportunities. 

Key Takeaways on Drones and Last Mile Delivery

  1. Increased Speed and Efficiency: Drones can bypass traffic congestion and challenging terrain, providing quicker and more efficient delivery services. This is especially valuable for reaching remote or disaster-stricken areas.
  2. Cost Savings: Drones can reduce labour costs by eliminating human delivery drivers and can also lower expenses associated with delivery vehicles, maintenance, insurance, and licensing.
  3. Eco-Friendly: Drones operate on electrical power and have a smaller carbon footprint compared to conventional delivery vehicles running on fossil fuels. They contribute to greener and more sustainable business practices, aligning with eco-friendly strategies.
  4. Energy Efficiency: Drones are designed for lightweight and direct flight paths, making them energy-efficient and environmentally friendly.
  5. Regulatory Challenges: Strict regulations regarding drone operations, airspace restrictions, and safety protocols vary by country. Compliance with these regulations can be complex and may limit the flexibility of drone delivery operations.
  6. Weight Capacity: The payload capacity of drones is limited, restricting the size and weight of packages that can be delivered. This limitation is a significant challenge for delivering larger or heavier items.
  7. Weather Dependency: Adverse weather conditions can disrupt drone operations, damage drones, and pose safety risks. Unpredictable weather patterns may lead to delays or cancellations, affecting the reliability of drone deliveries.
  8. Limited Battery Life: Drones have limited battery life, which can restrict the distance they can travel and the number of deliveries they can make in a single flight. Battery life is affected by various factors, including drone size, altitude, payload capacity, and flight speed.
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What are the opportunities of utilising drones for last-mile delivery? 

Drones are poised to transform how we receive our online orders as businesses of all shapes and sizes face a plethora of opportunities, including speed, cost savings, and reduced environmental impact when using drones for their last-mile delivery services.

Increased Speed and Efficiency

One significant opportunity is increased speed and efficiency over land options. Drones can easily bypass traffic congestion and challenging terrain, enabling them to deliver packages to consumers quickly and effectively with fewer unexpected disruptions than alternative options, such as lorries, which often hit traffic and struggle to reach remote destinations due to their sheer size. This allows organisations to provide customers with more accurate delivery times and opportunities to easily reach disaster-stricken regions and offshore locations. 

Cost Savings 

Integrating drones into the last-mile delivery process can also generate cost savings. Drones can reduce labour costs by eliminating human delivery drivers; thus, businesses can realise significant savings without the associated wages, benefits, and overtime. A further cost benefit comes from the elimination of delivery vehicles. With drone delivery, companies can reduce or eliminate the need for delivery vehicles, such as trucks or vans. Drones eliminate the initial cost of purchasing as well as the maintenance, insurance, and licensing costs. Other cost savings appear from reduced traffic congestion costs and lower maintenance and repair costs, as drones typically have fewer moving parts and require less maintenance than complex delivery vehicles.


Drones have a smaller carbon footprint than conventional delivery means as they operate on electrical power, making them emission-free in flight compared to fossil fuels. This aids contribution to greener and more sustainable business practices as they do not emit greenhouse gases, namely carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, which contribute heavily to air pollution and climate change. Furthermore, most drones use rechargeable batteries as their primary power source, reducing the need for single-use batteries, which are often disposed of incorrectly and harmful to the environment. Thus, drone utilisation for last-mile delivery aids in aligning strategy and the growing requirements to implement eco-friendly practices. Drones are also energy efficient due to their lightweight design and direct flight paths, making them the ideal eco-friendly solution.

What are the challenges of using drones for last mile delivery? 

One of the most significant challenges of using drones for last-mile delivery is the complex regulatory landscape surrounding them. Many countries have strict regulations regarding drone operations, including airspace restrictions, flight altitude limits, and safety protocols, with many countries requiring drone registration and the attainment of licences and certifications. Drone delivery operations are often subject to specific flight restrictions, including altitude limits, flight zines, and no flight paths, meaning delivery is less direct and logistically easy than it may superficially seem.

Weight Capacity 

The weight capacity of drones used for last-mile delivery can depend on the drone's type, size, and design. Although commercial drones are designed to carry heavier payloads, the current drone technology limits the payload capacity, restricting the size and weight of packages that can be delivered. This poses a challenge for delivering larger and heavier items.

Weather Dependency

Adverse weather conditions, such as strong winds, rain, or snow, can hinder drone operations and pose safety risks. Drones typically have electrical components, including motors, flight controllers and batteries, which can be damaged by poor weather conditions and cause the drone to malfunction. Poor weather conditions can also interfere with a drone's GPS signal and radio communication, resulting in the drone getting lost or destroyed. Unpredictable weather patterns may cause delays or delivery cancellations, making operations more logistically complex than initially thought.

Limited Battery Life 

Drones' range and battery life are currently limited, restricting the distance they can travel and the number of deliveries they can make in a single flight. The battery life is also hard to predict and variable as it hinges on varying means such as size, altitude, battery type, payload capacity and flight speed. Unfavourable weather conditions, for example, may impact the drone's already limited battery life. Wet conditions can affect flight performance, reducing flight time due to power shortages.

In summary, the role of drones within the last-mile delivery process presents exciting opportunities to revolutionise the logistics industry. Their speed, cost savings, and eco-friendly nature make them a compelling option for companies seeking innovative delivery solutions. However, drone delivery also faces limitations, but as regulations evolve and drone technology continues to improve, one should expect a significant transformation in how goods are delivered within the last mile. 

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